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Version: 0.1

Model validations

Model instances should be validated before being persisted to the database. As such models provide a convenient way to define validation rules through the use of model fields and through the use of a custom validation rules DSL. The underlying validation logics are completely database-agnostic, cannot be skipped (unless explicitly specified), and can be unit-tested easily.

Validation rules can be inherited from the fields in your model depending on the options you used and the type of your fields (for example fields using blank: false will make the associated record validation fail if the field value is blank). They can also be explicitly specified in your model class, which is useful if you need to implement custom validation logics.

Overview

A short example

Let's consider the following example:

class User < Marten::Model
field :id, :big_int, primary_key: true, auto: true
field :name, :string, max_size: 128, blank: false
end

In the above snippet, a User model is defined and it is specified that the name field must be present (blank: false) and that the associated value cannot exceed 128 characters.

Given these characteristics, it is possible to create User instances and to validate them through the use of the #valid? method:

user_1 = User.new
user_1.valid? # => false

user_2 = User.new(name: "0" * 200)
user_2.valid? # => false

user_3 = User.new(name: "John Doe")
user_3.valid? # => true

As you can see in the above examples, the first two users are invalid because either the name is not specified or because its value exceeds the maximum characters limit. The last user is valid though because it has a name that is less than 128 characters.

When does model validation happen?

Model instances are validated when they are created or updated, before any values are persisted to the database. Methods like #create or #save automatically run validations. They return false to indicate that the considered object is invalid (and they return true if the object is valid). The #create and #save methods also have bang counterparts (#create! and #save!) that will explicitly raise a validation error (instance of Marten::DB::Errors::InvalidRecord) in case of invalid records.

For example:

user = User.new
user.save
# => false
user.save!
# => Unhandled exception: Record is invalid (Marten::DB::Errors::InvalidRecord)

When validating model records, the validation rules that are inherited by fields will be executed first and then any custom validation rule defined in the model will be applied.

Running model validations

As mentioned previously, validation rules will be executed automatically when calling the #create or #save methods on a model record. It is also possible to manually verify whether a model instance is valid or not using the #valid? and #invalid? methods:

user = User.new
user.valid? # => false
user.invalid? # => true

Field validation rules

As mentioned previously, fields can contribute validation rules to your models. These validation rules can be inherited:

  • from the field type itself: some fields will validate that values are of a specific type (for example a uuid field will not validate values that don't correspond to valid UUIDs)
  • from the field options you define (for example fields using blank: true won't accept empty values)

Please refer to the fields reference in order to learn more about the supported field types and their associated options.

Custom validation rules

Custom validate rules can be defined through the use of the #validate macro. This macro lets you configure the name of a validation method that should be called when a model instance is validated. Inside this method, you can implement any validation logic that you might require and add errors to your model instances if they are identified as invalid.

For example:

class User < Marten::Model
field :id, :big_int, primary_key: true, auto: true
field :name, :string, max_size: 128, blank: false

validate :validate_name_is_not_forbidden

private def validate_name_is_not_forbidden
errors.add(:name, "admin can't be used!") if name == "admin"
end
end

In the above snippet, a custom validation method ensures that the name of a User model instance can't be set to "admin": if the name is set to "admin", then a specific error (associated with the name attribute) is added to the model instance (which makes it invalid).

Validation errors

Methods like #valid? or #invalid? only let you know whether a model instance is valid or invalid. But you'll likely want to know exactly what are the actual errors or how to add new ones.

As such, every model instance has an associated error set, which is an instance of Marten::Core::Validation::ErrorSet.

Inspecting errors

A model instance error set lets you access all the errors of a specific model instance. For example:

user = User.new

user.valid?
# => false

user.errors.size
# => 1

user.errors
# => #<Marten::Core::Validation::ErrorSet:0x100e1b740
# @errors=
# [#<Marten::Core::Validation::Error:0x100db75d0
# @field="name",
# @message="This field cannot be blank.",
# @type="blank">]>

As you can see, the error set gives you the ability to know how many errors are affecting your model instance. Each error provides some additional information as well:

  • the associated field name (which can be nil if the error is global)
  • the error message
  • the error type, which is optional (blank in the previous example)

You can also access the errors that are associated with a specific field very easily by using the #[] method:

user.errors[:name]
# => [#<Marten::Core::Validation::Error:0x104fb75d0
# @field="name",
# @message="This field cannot be blank.",
# @type="blank">]

Global errors (errors affecting the whole model instances or multiple fields at once) can be listed through the use of the #global method.

Adding errors

Errors can be added to an error set through the use of the #add method. This method takes a field name, a message, and an optional error type:

user.errors.add(:name, "Name is invalid")                      # error type is "invalid"
user.errors.add(:name, "Name is invalid", type: :invalid_name) # error type is "invalid_name"

Global errors can be specified through the use of an alternative #add method that doesn't take a field name:

user.errors.add("User is invalid")                      # error type is "invalid"
user.errors.add("User is invalid", type: :invalid_user) # error type is "invalid_user"

Skipping validations

Model validations can be explicitly skipped when using the #save or #save! methods. To do so, the validate: false argument can be used:

user = User.new
user.save(validate: false)
caution

It is generally not a good idea to skip validation that way. This technique should be used with caution!